Sites that serve multiple purposes and sites that are gateways. For the complete list, click here.
Everybody who is
interested in Roman History should become familiar with the Perseus
Digital Library. It is an integrated collection of extensive and
diverse resources including primary and secondary texts, site plans,
digital images, and maps. In addition, nearly all the classics
materials are interlinked and accessible from any given resource.
The website includes texts, translations, articles, and other
pedagogical resources. Most important of which, the Corpus Scriptorum
Latinorum, a digital library covering the entire body of Latin
literature. Also included are excellent secondary texts as Johnston's Private Life of
the Romans and Outlines
of Roman History (under construction).
This is another major site on Roman antiquity. It took me a while to
get used to the layout, but more and more, I appreciate this site. You
may find the page "Using
This Website Effectively" helpful. This site includes pictures of
Roman and Etruscan cities and monuments, a site for teaching yourself
to read Latin inscriptions, some
Latin texts not included in Perseus, various maps of the Roman
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, etc. Also included is RomanSites,
which another gateway.
This will be a phenomenal web-site when it is complete. Among the ways to use this site, you can find the events which are known to have happened in a particular year or find references to an event which is described by an ancient writer.
Imperial Forums (Capitolium)
Capitolium is the archaeological site of the Imperial Forums. It is
here that the Roman civilisation began. Included is a brief History of
Rome and Life
in Antique Rome. Also, here are the the technical details of the
works and of the archaeological finds, and a live images of the of the
works in the Forums. See also Roman Forum Excavation.
These are the primary
sources from which modern historians draw opinions and conclusions,
either by authors or collections,
A digital library of the entire body of Latin literature, both in Latin
and in translation.
- Ancient Texts
Includes very good translations of Frontinus, Vitruvius, Suetonius,
and Plutarch (incl. some of the Moralia).
One thing about the
primary texts in Perseus is that the each text is separated into
multiple pages, making it more readable but harder to search or print.
Please click here.
This site's section on Octavian or Augustus.
Damascus's biography of Augustus.
Suetonius's Divine Augustus.
Translation of Cassius Dio's reign of Augustus, Books 45 to 56.
Imperatoribus Romanis: Augustus
of Power from University of Virginia.
Primer: terrorist, demagogue, tyrant, greatest Emperor of Rome?
Dr. David Gill's lectures
for Augustus and Tiberius, incl. bibliography
of the Augustan Age from VROMA.
Augustus from dmoz.com.
These are some of the
lectures and articles available on the web.
Professor Christopher S. Mackay's lecture notes
An excellent site. Scroll down midway to see the index. Also includes a Time Chart, Map, Roman Names, List of Consuls
Mawr Classical Review
Bryn Mawr Classical Review publishes reviews of current scholarly work.
This is an online journal of the Classical world, and includes pdf
articles such as 'The
Homogenisation of Military Equipment Under the Roman Republic', 'The
Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 B.C. � A.D. 235)' and '�Romanization�?
or, why flog a dead horse?'.
Dr. Ellis L.
A lecture by Dr. Knox on the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, with a summary of
why the system works.
Wells' History Page
This powerpoint presention by Dr. Well�s (?) is a very short but good
summary about the Roman Republic and founding of the Roman Empire.
Dr. David Gill
These are powerpoint presentations of Dr. Gill�s lectures, and covers
the biography and achievements of Augustus, an overview of Roman Empire
including Eastern Roman Empire and Roman Britain.
This gateway provides links to academic web-sites, including Classics journal.
Brian K. Harvey's Site
Database is a good resource for primary texts divided up in
appropriated catagories, e.g. slaves sales receipts, marriage contract,
the legal system, capital punishment, Legislation from the Emperor,
etc. It also has a slide database, summaries of the Roman History
(e.g.: Roman Expansion and Provincial Administration, Roman Population
Figures, Information on the Roman Economy, etc in the different time
TOCS-IN provides the tables of contents of a selection of Classics
The technical details of the works and of the archaeological finds, and a live images of the works in the Forums.
Roman Forum Excavation.
Excavation in the imperial forums. As of Feb 2004, only the Forum of Trajan link is active.
A daily archaeological news and information.
"The ruins of Ephesus take on a value and a special significance among
the numerous sites of an archaeological interest. This is due to its
inestimable artistic patrimony, its titanic heritage of history and
culture, and the inexhaustible beauty and charm of its archaeological
"The principal aim of the excavations is to examine the articulation of
public, religious, and commercial space on the edge of the Roman Forum
in the Republican, Imperial, and late Roman periods." See also Roman Imperial Forums (Capitolium).
Daily Lives of Romans
For the complete list, click here
or choose the following:
E-mail Lists and Forums
A list of e-mail list and
forums concerned primarily with Ancient Rome.
Probably the most recognised but most academic of the Classic e-mail
lists. Warning: don't fool around!
Ancient History Forum
You could learn a lot of interesting facts and participate in discussions
in this forum at one point. The topics ranged from discussion of TV series (like the
of Troy miniseries) to Were
the Romans hardier? to Cancer
A fun place to meet friends, chat about ancient history, take latin and
ancient History quizzes, and to play historically based online games
such as S.P.Q.R, where you battle the barbarians threatening Ancient
[Works better with Internet Explorer.]
Ancient Rome spanned over
"When and why the Roman Empire declined and fell."
Eras of Roman History
An introduction of the eras, and some other resources on this subject.
Etruscans on the
Useful page listing links to web sites that deal with the Etruscans.
Links cover a diverse range of topics, including sites that deal with
Etruscan mythology, history, physical sites to visit, language, art.
The Mysterious Etruscans--Pre-Roman Civilisation in Italy
History in the Movies
Film makers are usually much more concerned with making an entertaining
film rather than a historically accurate depiction, but nevertheless,
the movies are sometimes fun, even if it is just ripping to shreds the
Geared towards children, but suitable for history fans of all ages,
this site provides a fun and enlightening way to study Roman history
and it offers delightful insights into the lesser known aspects of
Roman social history. The purpose of "hunt" is to answer questions
posted at top of the page. "Cheat" sheets are provided.
A re-enactment team who recreate the soldiers of the Roman Army for
public demonstrations and living history displays.
Gladiatorius Reenactment Group
The group seeks to "recreate something of the flavour of Gladiatorial
Games through Gladiatorial Reenactment, Historical Research and
Experimental Archaeology Projects."
Roman History Reading Group
If you like reading
books about Rome, be is fiction or nonfiction - be sure to stop by
this site. The Roman History Reading Group maintains an ongoing
discussion on selected books, as well as a comprehensive guide to the e-texts.
More than that, the site is also another gateway to links such as to
calendar and warfare.
There are also travelogues, essays and such.
Images of the Past
What is more fun than
seeing a piece of history--the monuments, the sculptures, the
THE "AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES FOR CLASSICS" ON-LINE DATABASE
"This database is a compilation of thousands of audio-visual items useful for the teaching and learning of classical (Greek and Roman) archaeology, culture, philosophy, mythology, history, art and architecture, literature, and languages available for purchase (or available freely over the internet)." (From the introductory page)
An impressive museum with an impressive web-site. The Roman
collection is catagorised into portraits and statues, reliefs and
mosaics, cameos and gems and jewels and vessels. Among the famous
pieces are the Gemma
Augustea and Gemma
Campsite Memorial in Nikopolis
This pdf document is an analysis of some of elements of the memorial.
The British Museum
collections are from Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age, and all
over the Roman Empire until 313 CD. The British Musuem also has an good
Another impressive museum. The Roman
collection is well-known for its sculpture
portraits and cameos.
The search engine is good too.
The collections are impressive and the on-line database is good when
it works. At times, the Italian version works even if the English
doesn't, but then, you have to spell in Italian. E.g. Augustus would be
The web-site is not as impressive as the museum, but then again, the
museum is hard to beat. The Roman collection is found under the Greek,
Etruscan and Roman Antiquities.
Named for one of Augustus� closest friends, the site is of images of
Ancient Rome (and Greece)�especially monuments, tombs, buildings,
reconstructions. etc, although it also has a section of sculptures.
Fine Arts, Boston
Collection is good in real life but you cannot get to the on-line
exhibits from the Roman Collection page. Try Roman
Emperors and Empresses (pulls out >450 records!) or try the search engine. An
interesting feature is the interactive zoom of the pieces.
Although Saskia is a sales web-site, it contains over 26,000 digital
images, mainly of sculptures, monuments and artifacts. You can view the
Metropolitan Museum of Art
and Roman Art section on the web-site does not do the museum
justice. The search
engine is better if you know what you are looking for. The timeline
can be useful.
of Pennsylvania Museum
The museum's on-line Roman
collection is not linked but the descriptions are concise. More
impressive is the virtual exhibition of Glassmaking
in Roman Times.
Wild Wind is another sales web-site created as a reference, attribution
and valuation resource and contains many digital images of ancient
Exploring Ancient World Cultures
Some images from museums and art institutes. (Note: the "previous" and
"next" links do not always work. Also, if you explore the "chronology"
Institute of Arts
The institute is a small collection
of Roman art.
Vatican Museums Online. Need I say more? Well, actually, yes. The Roman
collection is not on-line yet, but the Etruscan collection is.
Gateway to Roman Law
This is a gateway to sites dealing with Roman Law, ranging from general
information to a translation of the Twelve
Tables of Roman Laws.
A summary of the Roman legal system and laws, and a comparison between
the Ancient Roman and US systems.
"The Twelve Tables were written by the Decemviri Consulari Imperio
Legibus Scribundis (the 10 Consuls) who were given unprecedented powers
to draft the laws of the young Republic.Originally ten laws were
drafted ; two later statutes were added prohibiting marriage between
the classes and affirming the binding nature of customary law. The new
code promoted the organization of public prosecution of crimes and
instituted a system whereby injured parties could seek just
compensation in civil disputes. The plebeians were protected from the
legal abuses of the ruling patricians, especially in the enforcement of
debts. Serious punishments were levied for theft and the law gave male
heads of families enormous social power (patria potestas).The important
basic principle of a wriiten legal code for Roman law was established ,
and justice was no longer based solely on the interpretation of judges.
These laws formed an important part of the foundation of all subsequent
Western civil and criminal law." -- E. H. Warmington.
Sites devoted primarily to the study of Latin.
A glossary of common Latin phrases.
Language and Literature
A resource list for information on the Latin language and related
literature, including some shareware. Includes a list of links to sites
which maintain online texts in latin as well as general learning aids
for students of Latin.
Committee for the
Promotion of Latin
This site is especially useful for educators with downloadable posters
and other materials useful for promoting Latin in the classroom.
This is a gateway to sites from those which have famous quotes (e.g.
"veni, vidi, vici"--"I came, I saw, I conquered") to those with
pseudo-Latin quotes (e.g. "veni, vidi, velco"--"I came, I saw, I stuck
"The etymology and history of satire are as mixed up as the stuffed
sausage from which it may get its name."
Maps and Altases
Gateway to Classical Maps and Geography
This is another gateway from Cambridge to classical maps and altases.
Sometimes, it is hard to convert from the old place names to modern
ones, i.e. Mutina = Modena.
Stoa Waypoint Database
From the webpage: "The Stoa Waypoint Database is a repository of
geographic coordinates for sites, features, objects, routes, etc. of
the ancient world."
Barca and the Punic Wars
"The Most Comprehensive Web Resource on the Life of Hannibal Barca and
the Punic Wars Between Rome and Carthage". Includes biographies of the
Romans who fought in the Punic Wars, such as Scipio
Africanus and Scipio
Aemilianus, as well as contemporaries like the Gracchi brothers.
A list of the Imperial battles, from Actium to Yarmuk.
Gateway of Ancient Military History
A gateway to sites of Roman and Greek military history, from the Roman
army, to navy, to army hospitals.
Battle of Teutoburg Forest
An abridged account of the catastrophic battle by Velleius Paterculus,
Politics and Administration
Use of the Tribunate for Reforms
In the Roman Republic, the office of tribune provided reformers an
opportunity to try to solve the problems of Ancient Rome.
- The House of the Roman Senate
A brief history of the curia and links to other resources.
Honorum--the hierarchy of Roman offices
An introduction of the hierarchy, and some other resources on this
Roman Republican Constitution
A easy guide to the executive and legislative positions in the Roman
Religions and Cults
Have a question about a mythology? Want to know what the name or a god
or goddess means, or what they rule over? Check out this site! Not only
do they offer an indepth overview of Roman Mythology, but they offer
access to information about the mythical traditions of every major
tradition - ancient or modern.
the Roman Imperial Cult During the Augustan Age
The imperial cult was in part a means of building and consolidating the
Roman Empire, an important unifying factor in the vastly undergoverned
"Religious practices and beliefs within the Roman empire were diverse,
and varied between regions and individuals. At their core, however, lay
the state religion, which was the state-recognised and prescribed
worship of traditional gods (like Jupiter and Mars), of the emperor
(generally only when deceased), and of certain members of the imperial
family ('the imperial cult')."--from its introduction
Horse in Classical Religion
A brief overview of the horse in religion, including a paragraph on the
"The Vestal Virgins were venerated priestesses of Vesta (the Roman
goddess of the hearth fire) and guardians of the luck of Rome who could
intervene on behalf of those in trouble."--From About.com Ancient
discussions of people who made a difference. (A lot more links to be
Augustus (31 B.C. -
14 A.D.) by Garrett G. Fagan
A brief and comprehensive biography of the, arguably, single most
important figure in Roman history.
Suite 101's site on notable people in the ancient world.
Caesar: the Last Dictator
A good site discussing Julius Caesar himself, the first half of the
first century BCE and his contemporaries. Includes a timeline.
The second emperor, Tiberius, emerges from the works of the historian
Tacitus as a hypocritical, cruel and immoral character. Yet a closer
study of the factual evidence given by Tacitus illustrates a totally
different emperor. This article looks at the biases by Tacitus.
of the city of Rome
I suppose I have to put something for Romulus. After all, Rome is named
Technology and Medicine
The sites includes chapters on mining, blacksmithing, stoneworking,
construction, civil engineering, medicine and weapons.
food, clothing, shelter, arts and crafts, etc.
of Rome Under Augustus
This article discusses the repair and renewal of the city's system of
aqueducts in the Augustan era, the greatest period of construction in
Roads of Rome
All roads lead to Rome.
The "roads which
led to the far reaches of the Empire were of state of the art design.
The men who planned these roads saw swamps, hills etc. as inevitable
obstacles that they could overcome."
An amphitheater, such as the Colosseum, was a building for the
exhibition of combats of gladiators, and wild beasts, and ships.
of Artificial Stone
A brief blurp on concrete.
A basic page that introduces Roman military might, roads, surveying,
codes, signals, food and baths.
Updated on 9th Feb 2004.